How many ports are there in the world?
There are more than 2000 ports, each with its size and its purpose. There are ports able to move hundreds of tons per year by allowing only one ship at a time, while others move millions by supporting more tasks simultaneously.
How many ports are there in Brazil?
According to the ANTAQ Annex to resolution 2969, Brazil has 235 port facilities- taking into account public and private infrastructures, maritime or inland waterways, since no Brazilian port facilities is classified as Port Lakeside. It is worth mentioning that these data were taken from the Secretariat of Ports (SEP) and they do not take into consideration Public Small Port Facilities (IP4), which the Ministry of Transport is responsible for. An example is the port of Manaus which is classified as a maritime one by receiving vessels from the ocean , even though it is located near fluvial waterways. Within these 235 port facilities, 37 are considered Public Ports ( administrated by the federal government – either through the dock companies, municipalities, states or public consortia). The list doesn´t show any terminal classified as Port Lakeside. Besides those, 161 are river ports, which responsibilities are divided among the Secretariat of Ports, the Ministry of Transport and DNIT.
Main Brazilian Ports
To define which are the main ports in Brazil is not an easy task, since it is necessary to choose the operated study base. The ports efficiency analysis can be done by cargo volume transported, the amount of US$, size of the port area and influence as well as many other options. We have chosen various forms of analysis below developed by IPEA itself, being them: Size, Hinterland ( area of influence), participation in Foreign Trade, Activities sectors, type of port ( national, regional or local) and the aggregated value in their products. Through these information, a relevant score was established that , with the sum of factors, the following conclusions were reached:
VITORIA (ES) PORT
Vitoria Port is considered a major port being in a privileged position ( not as much as Santos and other ports), but in the fifth place in a more general analysis.
Its coverage area is at a regional level, giving operational support to 21 states plus the Federal District, of which 6 are part of its influence area. Its main performances are in international transactions from other ports in Brazil, mainly with cargoes from the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais and Goiás.
In addition to the supports to the above states it also serves as support for the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso and São Paulo, serving 14 sectors of activity, all with sales exceeding US$ 30.0 million and having moved US$ 17.09 billion in trade in 2007.
The port of Victoria is mainly recognized by the sectors of mineral products, such as metallurgy ( refined copper and copper alloys in crude forms); pulp and paper, wood and agricultural industry ( coals, for example).
SANTOS (SP) PORT
Santos Port has a privileged place in all classifications. Considered large and the only one which is qualified as national, its movement covers all the 14 sectors of activities which the most prominent are: mechanical industry ( US$ 10.66 billion moved); transporting industry material ( US$8,42 billion); the agribusiness sector and wood ( with US$ 8.21 billion); the chemical industry ( US$ 7.78 billion); the food and beverage industries, with (US$ 7.38 billion); and metallurgy with ( US$ 5.76 billion).
All these operations include US$ 5.0 billion in trade and Santos is to be considered the Brazilian port with greater diversity in imports and exports. For exemplification purposes, the Port of Santos handled about US$ 65.0 billion in trade. This is because the Port of Santos influences 16 Brazilian states and the Federal District, and it is also used as means of cargo shifting to all Brazilian states ( except Amapá) and as international trade.
PARANAGUA (PR) PORT
Paranagua Port is also a large one with an influence area in 10 Brazilian states, namely:Paraná, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul ( these three as main assistants in commercial transactions – US$ 12.49 billion only from Paraná, or 72.8% of its international trade; Mato Grosso, with a turnover of US$ 1.09 billion, or 33.3% of its foreign trade, and Mato Grosso do Sul, with US$ 419.99 million, or 38.4% of its international trade), São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Goiás, Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul.
It is also important for commercial transits that when aggregated are responsible for a movement of international trade over US$ 1 billion in 2007. It also makes business relations with Rondônia and Acre, but not so significant- about 26.3 % of Rondonia international trade and only 18.8 of Acre international transactions.
Cargoes movement in Paranagua Port , despite covering 13 sectors of economic activity , 5 out of these sectors are centered and have bigger prominence: agribusiness and wood ( US$ 5.47 billion); transport equipment (US$ 2.52 billion); food and beverages ( US$ 2.28 billion); chemical industry ( US$ 2.27 billion); and mechanical industry ( US$ 1.47 billion).
At Paranaguá Port, the imported goods are less important than the exported ones because only the exported ones have a well diversified origin, as in the case of meat, chicken, pies,solid waste soya or only soya and even vechicles for passenger´s transportation.
RIO DE JANEIRO (RJ) PORT
Rio de Janeiro Port is considered a regional one. It serves 22 states and its influence area covers four units of the federation. The products operated by Rio de Janeiro port are well diversified products and specially cover the ones from the manufacturing industry, i.e. products with bigger aggregated value per product moved about US$ 1278.20/t.
According to IPEA, in the international movement of goods, the value transacted by this port reached US$ 12.18 billion in 2007. Cast iron, iron and steel are the most representatives herein, totalling exports in US$ 2.54 billion in 2007. The main exported product was ferroalloys , with US$ 882.41 million, out of which US$ 853.79 million are from Minas Gerais.
In 2010, they concluded that fourteen industry sectors are operated through it and five stand with superior handlings of US$ 1.0 billion; metallurgy ( US$ 3.47 billion); transport equipment (US$ 2.04 billion); chemical industry ( US$ 1.45 billion); mineral products ( US$ 1.24 billion);and mechanical industry ( US$ 1.18 billion). Thus, it is clear that Rio de Janeiro Port has a great importance for the automotive industry for moving vehicles and parts related to them.
ITAJAÍ (SC) PORT
Itajaí Port is a regional port which was considered a medium-sized one before 2007.However, from 2003 to 2007, there was a large expansion of the port with an increase of 30.3% in the products moved ( about US$ 10.0 million).
Its influence area was expanded in two more states, with Mato Grosso do Sul, as primary hinterland and Rondônia, as tertiary hinterland. This increase made it up in the category average for a large port. This is the second Brazilian port with higher aggregated value of the products moved with US$ 1847.97 / t in 2007.
It served 22 states of the federation in 2007 , namely: Santa Catarina ( US$ 6.07 billion and 60.2% of the foreign trade of the state), Mato Grosso do Sul ( US$ 117.66 million and 10.8 % ), Rondônia ( 59.5% of its international trade). In addition to these, it also has relations with Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo and Acre.
According to IPEA, fourteen sectors of activity have used this port, especially four of them by concentrating the movement in the port foreign trade goods such as: agribusiness and wood ( US$ 3.60 billion); mechanical industry (US$ 933.97 million); electronics ( US$ 614,04 million); and textile industry ( US$ 503,39 million).
Its importance is mainly focused in exports, which were responsible for US$ 5.75 billion in 2007), exceeding imports in more than US$ 3.5 billion. Out of the 43 products mentioned above and moved by this port, the most important are: meat and chicken small wareses ( US$ 1.39 billion) with more than 77% from Santa Catarina; pork meat(US$ 574.12 million); other preparations and conserves of meat, small wareses or of blood (US$ 361.650,000); not manufactured tobacco (US$ 343,68 million) frozen beef (US$ 331.590,000);synthetic filaments (US$ 96.440,000); artificial staple fibres (US$91.190,000 );discontinued artificial staple fibre wires (US$89.070,000) and electric water heaters ( US$ 70.36 million).
RIO GRANDE (RS) PORT
Rio Grande Port is considered a regional major port. 21 units of the federation use this port for international transactions, but its main influence areas are in Rio Grande do Sul ( 66.4% of international trade in the state); São Paulo (US$ 634.26 million); Santa Catarina (US$ 229.20 million); and Paraná (US$ 144.03 million).
Its exports and imports are mainly known for their diversity. This port operates from fertilizers to items for the automotive industry and the mechanical engineering products.Its main goods in 2007 were non manufactured tobacco, soyabeans, footwear, meat and chicken wareses.
Its main activities in international trade are within the products of high aggregated value. Examples of these products are: agribusiness and wood (US$4.90 billion); chemical industry ( US$ 1.49 billion); footwear and leather ( US$ 1.36 billion); transportation material (US$ 1.04 billion); and mechanical industry (US$ 1.03 billion). The port operates with high aggregated value, with an average of US$ 733.26 /t).
SÃO FRANCISCO DO SUL (SC) PORT
São Francisco do Sul Port is a local and large one and presents a high aggregated value of traded goods with the average of US$ 585.56 /t. 23 federal units use this port for international trades and its influence area covers four states: Paraná ( handles about 14.6% of Paraná international trade); Santa Catarina ( 23.5% of its foreign trade); Mato Grosso; and Bahia.
Despite the moved value, its activities are concentraded in a specific market niche:only two sectors, namely: agribusiness and wood and mineral products. In 2007, these world trade totalled over US$ 1.0 billion.
Its main export products are: soybeans, corn and non manufactured tobacco. Most of these products is from Santa Catarina. In 2007, a single product represented 89% of the port imports: the crude oil, with US$ 1.68 billion entirely for the state of Paraná.
SALVADOR (BA) PORT
Considered a local and midrange port, Salvador Port has an influence area in the states of Bahia ( 35.6% of all Bahia state international trade) and Sergipe (39.2% of its transactions were handled by the port of Salvador) in addition to the 24 units of the federation that used this port to move their international trade, achieving a value of approximately US$ 4.32 billion in 2007.
Its activities cover 14 different sectors, being the main ones the metallurgy (US$ 944.41 million); plastics and rubber ( US$ 660.610,000); mineral products ( US$ 562.99 million); chemical industry ( US$ 456.15 million); and mechanical industry (US$ 332.65 million). This is also a port that transacts with very high aggregated value products which recorded in 2007 an average of US$ 1157.98/ t.
The 20 most exported goods market achieved superior values of US$ 30.0 million, as refining cooper, crude oil and copper wire from Bahia. For imports, its biggest highlights are the vehicles for passenger´s transportation.
MANAUS (AM) PORT
Considered the largest floating port in the world, Manaus Port has higher expression in the imports monetary terms, as well as having great influence in its Free Zone. Out of the imported products, we can list lamps, valves, tubes, parts and motorcycle accessories and motorized wheelchairs.
The inland waterway services (IWT) is of great importance for Manaus port. Through it, the capital ( Manaus) and the countryside cities are linked in order not to solely make the transport of cargo but of people.
ARATU (BA) PORT
Aratu Port is considered a local and large port. Even though it attends the Camaçari Petrochemical Complex, it has predominantly local characteristics.
Its influence area is mainly Bahia state ( as primary hinterland) and uses the state of São Paulo ( secondary hinterland). Besides these ,more six federal units also use this port for international trades. These business trades are concentrated in the sectors of mining products; chemical and transport material. This shows that Bahia port transacts products with high aggregated value and on average of US$ 767.26 /t.
Its export products are among petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, vehicles for passengers´ transportation and organic chemicals ( cyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols acyclic and its derivatives, acyclic hydrocarbons, ethers and derivatives thereof). All these products are originating from Bahia.
As for the import of goods it continues in the same line of minerals, chemicals and petrochemical products: copper ores and concentrades, mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation and petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals. Import products do not stop there but it specially shows vehicles for passenger´s transport; and vehicles for transport of goods: mineral fertilizers, chemical or potassium.